Carl August Nielsen (9 June 1865 – 3 October 1931) is widely recognized as Denmark’s greatest composer, and is also remembered as a skilled conductor and a violinist.
Nielsen was born the seventh of twelve children to a poor peasant family in 1865 at Nørre Lyndelse near Sortelung, south of Odense on the island of Funen. His father, Niels Jørgensen, was a house painter and traditional musician who, with his abilities as a fiddler and cornet player, was in strong demand for local celebrations. Nielsen described his childhood in his autobiography Min Fynske Barndom (My Childhood on Funen). His mother, whom he recalls singing folk songs during his childhood, came from a well-to-do family of sea captains while one of his half-uncles, Hans Andersen, was a talented musician.
Nielsen initially played in a military band before attending the Royal Danish Academy of Music in Copenhagen from 1884 until December 1886. He premiered his Op. 1, Suite for Strings, in 1888, at the age of 23. The following year, Nielsen began a 16-year stint as a second violinist in the prestigious Royal Danish Orchestra under the conductor Johan Svendsen, during which he played in Giuseppe Verdi’s Falstaff and Otello at their Danish premieres. In 1916, he took a post teaching at the Royal Academy and continued to work there until his death.
Although his symphonies, concertos and choral music are now internationally acclaimed, Nielsen’s career and personal life were marked by many difficulties, often reflected in his music. The works he composed between 1897 and 1904 are sometimes ascribed to his “psychological” period, resulting mainly from a turbulent marriage with the sculptor Anne Marie Brodersen. Nielsen is especially noted for his six symphonies, his Wind Quintet and his concertos for violin, flute and clarinet. In Denmark, his opera Maskarade and many of his songs have become an integral part of the national heritage. His early music was inspired by composers such as Brahms and Grieg, but he soon developed his own style, first experimenting with progressive tonality and later diverging even more radically from the standards of composition still common at the time. Nielsen’s sixth and final symphony, Sinfonia semplice, was written in 1924–25. He died from a heart attack six years later, and is buried in Vestre Cemetery, Copenhagen.
Nielsen maintained the reputation of an outsider during his lifetime, both in his own country and internationally. It was only later that his works firmly entered the international repertoire, accelerating in popularity from the 1960s through Leonard Bernstein and others. In Denmark, Nielsen’s reputation was sealed in 2006 when three of his compositions were listed by the Ministry of Culture amongst the twelve greatest pieces of Danish music. For many years, he appeared on the Danish hundred-kroner banknote. The Carl Nielsen Museum in Odense documents his life and that of his wife. Between 1994 and 2009 the Royal Danish Library, sponsored by the Danish government, completed the Carl Nielsen Edition, freely available online, containing background information and sheet music for all Nielsen’s works, many of which had not been previously published.
Symphony No. 1 in G minor, Op. 7, FS 16
This symphony was written between 1891 and 1892 and it was dedicated to his wife, Anne Marie Carl-Nielsen. The work’s première, on 14 March 1894, was performed by Johan Svendsen conducting the Royal Danish Orchestra, with Nielsen himself among the second violins. The symphony’s melodies have a distinctive Danish flavour and are imbued with Nielsen’s personal style. Nielsen scholar Robert Simpson describes the composer’s symphonic debut as “probably the most highly organized first symphony ever written by a young man of twenty-seven.
The symphony has four movements:
Allegro comodo — Andante sostenuto — Tempo I
Finale. Allegro con fuoco
Symphony No. 2, “The Four Temperaments”, Op. 16, FS 29
This symphony was written in 1901–1902 and dedicated to Ferruccio Busoni. It was first performed in 1 December 1902 for the Danish Concert Association, with Nielsen himself conducting.
As indicated in the subtitle, each of its four movements is a musical sketch of a humor of the four temperaments: choleric, phlegmatic, melancholic, and sanguine. The composer’s inspiration for the symphony came from a four-part comical picture of the temperaments in a village pub in Zealand during a visit with his wife and friends.
Despite its apparent concept of program music, the work is a fully integrated symphony in traditional symphonic structure with four movements:
Allegro collerico (Choleric)
Allegro comodo e flemmatico (Phlegmatic)
Andante malincolico (Melancholic)
Allegro sanguineo — Marziale (Sanguine)
Symphony No. 3, “Sinfonia Espansiva”, Op. 27, FS 60
This was written between 1910 and 1911. The symphony followed Nielsen’s tenure as bandmaster at the Royal Danish Opera in Copenhagen. Nielsen himself conducted the premiere of the work on February 28, 1912 with Copenhagen’s Royal Danish Orchestra.
The character designation of the first movement (Allegro espansivo) serves as the symphony’s subtitle – probably meaning the “outward growth of the mind’s scope”. Uniquely amongst Nielsen’s symphonies, it includes wordless vocal solos for soprano and baritone in the second movement.
The Movements are:
1. Allegro espansivo
2. Andante pastorale
3. Allegretto un poco
4. Finale: Allegro
Symphony No. 4, “The Inextinguishable”, Op. 29, FS 76
This symphony was completed in 1916. Composed against the backdrop of the First World War, this symphony is among the most dramatic that Nielsen wrote, featuring a “battle” between two sets of timpani.
Nielsen was thinking about a new symphony in 1914, and in May he wrote to his wife (who was in Celle): I have an idea for a new composition, which has no programme but will express what we understand by the spirit of life or manifestations of life.
Nielsen concentrated on this until 1916, and named his 4th symphony “The Inextinguishable”. The name does not apply to the symphony itself, but rather to “that which is inextinguishable”. In his notes for the symphony, Nielsen refers to “the elemental will to live”.
The symphony is in one continuous movement with the following parts: Allegro — Poco allegretto — Poco adagio quasi andante — Allegro.
Symphony No. 5, Op. 50, FS 97
This was composed between 1920 and 1922. It was first performed in Copenhagen on 24 January 1922 with the composer conducting.
Written in a modern musical language, the symphony draws on the theme of contrast and opposition. It is deeply original, unorthodox, scary and exhilarating.
Being a post-World War I composition it has elements of war. The first movement is a battle between the orchestra and a renegade snare-drummer, who can only be silenced by the full forces of his colleagues in the final bars. The second movement continues the struggle with shivers of anxiety, building through repetitions and detours to the final victorious grand explosion.
Carl Nielsen’s faith in mankind is so uplifting that you are exhilarated at the concert hall when the fifth Symphony has been played.
The two movements are:
1 Tempo giusto — Adagio non troppo
2 Allegro — Presto — Andante un poco tranquillo — Allegro
Symphony No. 6 “Sinfonia semplice”, (no opus number), FS 116
This was completed on December 5, 1925. The first performance was given by the Chapel Royal Orchestra on December 11.
The Copenhagen reviewers were confused by the style of the new Symphony. Nielsen had called it Sinfonia semplice (Simple Symphony). Being hard to grasp, it remains the least performed of all six symphonies. There are four movements:
I. Tempo giusto — Lento, ma non troppo — Tempo I
II. Humoreske. Allegretto — Allegro — Tempo I
III. Proposta seria. Adagio
IV. Tema con variazioni: Allegro — Thema. Allegretto un poco — Variation 1-9 — Fanfare
Concerto for flute and orchestra, (no opus number), FS 119
This concerto was written in 1926 for Holger Gilbert-Jespersen, who succeeded Paul Hagemann as flutist of the Copenhagen Wind Quintet. The concerto, in two movements, was generally well received at its premiere in Paris in October 1926 where Nielsen had introduced a temporary ending. The first complete version was played in Copenhagen the following January. The flute concerto has become part of the international repertoire.
Concerto for Clarinet and orchestra, op. 57, DF 129
This was written for Danish clarinetist Aage Oxenvad in 1928. It was conceived during the most difficult period in Nielsen’s life.
He was sixty-three, and had achieved considerable renown throughout Scandinavia; yet he was disappointed that his music had not reached a wider audience, he was deeply concerned with the unsettled state of the world, and he knew that his days were numbered.
Perhaps this accounts for the bitter struggle which occurs throughout this concerto—a war between the tonalities of F major and E major. Every time hostilities seem to be at an end, a snare drum incites the combatants to renewed conflict.
Another explanation for this is that the clarinetist for whom he was writing the concerto had a bi-polar disorder. Therefore, the concerto was poking fun at his constant mood swings.
The first public performance took place in Copenhagen on 11 October with the same players, and received a generally positive reception. Politiken wrote:
“… he has liberated the soul of the clarinet, not only the wild animal aspect but also its special brand of ruthless poetry…. This work could hardly have found a more homogeneous interpretation. Oxenvad’s sonority is in tune with the trolls and the giants, and he has soul, a rough and stocky primordial force mixed with naive Danish mildness. Certainly Carl Nielsen must have had his particular clarinet sound in mind while composing this Concerto.”
Concerto for Violin and orchestra, op. 33, DF 61
This was written for Hungarian violinist Dr. Emil Telmányi, Nielsen’s son-in-law, in 1911. The concerto has two movements.
He began writing it in the summer of 1911 in Bergen, Norway, where he was spending some time at the invitation of Nina Grieg. It progressed with some difficulty as Nielsen, now back in his native Denmark, commented that the concerto “has to be good music, and yet always make allowances for the activity of the solo instrument in the best light, that is rich in content, popular and dazzling without becoming superficial.” In fact, he did not complete it until mid-December.
The first performance followed on 28 February 1912, the same night as the first performance of Nielsen’s 3rd Symphony. Carl Nielsen himself conducted the Royal Danish Orchestra at the Odd Fellows Mansion in Copenhagen with Peder Møller, Nielsen’s preferred virtuoso, as soloist.
The concerto continued to be received with enthusiasm as it was performed on several occasions over the following years, not only in Denmark but also in Gothenburg and Stockholm, always with Møller as soloist.
The two movements are:
Praeludium: Largo – Allegro cavalleresco
Intermezzo: Poco adagio – Rondo: Allegro scherzando
Wind Quintet (Quintet for Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, Horn and Bassoon) Op. 43
This was composed early in 1922 in Gothenburg, Sweden. The first public performance was on 9 October 1922 in the smaller hall at the Odd Fellows Mansion in Copenhagen. It is considered a staple of the repertoire for wind quintet.
The quintet for winds is one of the composer’s latest works, in which he has attempted to render the characters of the various instruments. At one moment they are all talking, at another they are quite alone. The work consists of three movements: a) Allegro, b) Minuet and c) Prelude – Theme with Variations. The theme for these variations is the melody for one of Carl Nielsen’s spiritual songs, which has here been made the basis of a set of variations, now merry and quirky, now elegiac and serious, ending with the theme in all its simplicity and very quietly expressed. Overall, the piece combines aspects of neo-classicism and modernism.